As I have mentioned (here) I am participating in “Greek Isaiah in a Year” reading group. These are my notes from this week (3:22-5:16).
The end of 4:4 brings to my mind John the Baptist’s words about the coming Messiah baptizing with Spirit and fire: ἐν πνεύματι κρίσεως καὶ πνεύματι καύσεως. The MT: ברוח משפט וברוח בער.
LXX 4:4 adds a statement about sons: τὸν ῥύπον τῶν υἱῶν. The MT has the daughters connected to the filth (צאת בנות־ציון).
In 4:2-6 it is quite easy to read this text as having messianic and eschatological implications. The MT speaks of the Branch of YHWH (צמח יהוה). Both the MT and LXX speak of a Spirit of judgment and a Spirit of fire. Exodus language appears in vv. 5-6 with a new creation motif in v. 5 of the MT וברא יהוה)) and a “coming” motif in the LXX (καὶ ἥξει).
In v. 5 the MT speaks of Mt. Zion and her assemblies (ועל־מקראה) while the LXX mentions her surrounding areas (πάντα τὰ περικύκλῳ αὐτῆς).
In 5:1 בקרן בן־שמן is one odd phrase. Literally, it translates something like “in a horn of the son of oil”, which apparently the “horn” is more like a peak, and “son of oil” is an idiomatic way of saying that it is fertile, likely for something oil producing like olive trees. The LXX tries to follow along translating it as ἐν κέρατι ἐν τόπῳ πίονι or “in a horn in a fat place”.
In 5:2 the author transliterates שׂרק as σωρηχ.
In 5:8 the MT seems to indicate that someone comes to possess all the houses and land, so that they live alone (a monopoly of sorts). In the LXX it seems as if someone is attaching houses so that they have access to other houses for the purpose of theft.
“Like a ten-yoked vineyard” (כי עשרת֙ צמדי־כרם) in 5:10 seems to have been difficult to translate. The LXX renders it “ten yoked oxen” (δέκα ζεύγη βοῶν).
In 5:13 the general “lack of knowledge” (מבלי־דעת) in the MT is interpreted as a lack of knowledge of YHWH in the LXX (διὰ τὸ μὴ εἰδέναι αὐτοὺς τὸν κύριον).
There seems to be a play on themes between 5:13 and 5:14. Israel lacks knowledge in 5:13 (מבלי־דעת) so Sheol will lack satisfaction in her consuming of life (לבלי־חק).
Sheol (שאול) becomes Hades (ᾅδης) in 5:14.
In vv. 15-16 the exalted eyes of the proud (ועיני גבהים) are brought low and YHWH is exalted (ויגבה יהוה).
See notes on: